Hard money and private money loans are an essential part of the real estate ecosystem, but there are more risks to consider than traditional bank financing.
Maybe you need to close a deal fast. Or maybe your bank wont lend to you because you have poor credit, no credit, no proof of income or a bad debt-to-income ratio. Maybe they don’t like the property or the deal you’re doing. Whatever the reason, you might need to use hard money or private money to fund your next real estate investment.
I use private money lenders all the time. They are fast and flexible, and I have built up a solid, long-term track record so I get decent terms. But this type of borrowing really isn’t for everyone. In this article I will walk you through some of the biggest risks of using hard or private money loans, and what you can do to protect yourself.
- Hard Money Scammers & Predatory Lenders
- Impossible Loan Terms
- Understanding Loan Documents
- Deals That Fall Through
Related: Private Lending 101 – Everything You Need to Know to Become a Lender
Hard Money Scammers & Predatory Lenders
The first thing you should be aware of before we even get to dodgy lenders, is the proliferation of outright scammers. You’ll find these guys all over social media, in every real estate Facebook and LinkedIn group. They prey on newbie investors that get sucked in by the promise of easy cash with little or no checks.
These guys are not lenders. Some are just pretending to be lenders so as to attract potential borrowers. Others create fake profiles of real lenders and pretend to be them. Whatever their approach, the scammers ultimate goal is to get the borrower to part with their cash. They do this by promising to make a loan, only to then ask for certain costs and fees from the borrower upfront.
Beware of Predatory Lenders
Once you navigate your way past the scammers, you then have to contend with genuine lenders that might try and stiff you. Because private lending is way less regulated than consumer lending, the industry is prone to it’s share of bad apples.
While most private and hard money lenders conduct themselves to industry best practice, there are a few things to watch out for. Setting loan terms that the lender knows the borrower will not be able to meet, or adding predatory clauses into loan documentation are both ways for unscrupulous lenders to take advantage of inexperienced borrowers.
Related: Are Private Money Lenders Bad?
How to Protect Yourself
Lenders do not tout for business in Facebook. There are typically way more people that want to borrow money than there are people that are willing and capable of lending. As such, genuine lenders will generally not need to tout for business from strangers on the internet. It seems silly to say it, but be very wary of strangers commenting on your social media posts claiming to want to lend you money. It happens, and people fall for it… a lot!
Be wary of ‘too good to be true’ terms. If a lender is offering terms that are generally better than the market, it is a good sign they might be a scammer. Hard money rates start at about 8% at the very lowest, and can be as high as 15%. Do your research to get a good idea of what multiple lenders are offering so that you understand realistic loan pricing in your area.
Meet face to face if you can. If your hard money lender is local, go visit their office. There is a lot to be said for the good old fashioned approach of eyeballing someone before you do business. This will also give you a chance to assess the professionalism of their operation.
Check that the lender is registered in NMLS. The Nationwide Multistate Licensing System (NMLS) is the national system of record and licensure for Mortgage Loan Originators (MLOs). Hard money lenders should have an NMLS number that you can check here. Private money lenders will most likely not have an NMLS number as they are private individuals making direct loans with their own cash.
Review the lender’s website. Most hard money lenders will have a website, and it should be professional. If you find your lender with a poor website littered with spelling and grammar errors, and little to no information about the actual people behind the business, walk away.
Ask for references and referrals. Again, it may seem a little old fashioned, but ask to speak to actual customers and business partners. Perhaps their attorney or banker can vouch for them. If they are unable to have anyone vouch for them then I would be very cautious indeed.
Check on your lender’s foreclosures. you can search the internet or look up record and the County Courthouse to find out how many properties the lender had foreclosed on. If a lender has lots of foreclosures it means they are slow to listen and quick to act when it comes to delinquent payments.
Related: The Ultimate Pre-Deal Checklist for Private Lenders
Impossible Loan Terms
One of the biggest risks of using private money is the fact that it is expensive relative to traditional financing. Private lenders are more flexible in their approach to risk, and higher interest rates reflect their compensation as such.
Private lenders are way less stringent than banks when it comes to confirming your ability to repay the loan. While a bank will look carefully at your proof of income, debt-to-income ratio and credit score, a private lender will not be so picky.
That means you could end up with a loan that you cannot afford, and it is up to you to make sure that you only take on debt that you are certain you can afford to repay.
Related: A Guide to Promissory Notes for Lenders and Borrowers
How to Protect Yourself
Know your ability to repay. Sounds simple, right? Well, you’d be surprised at how many people take on debt they cannot afford. Make sure you have a handle on your income, living costs and lifestyle expenses, and make sure you can make the payment on your loan, otherwise you risk losing your property.
Check for Hidden Costs. The interest rate is not the only costs associated with private money loans. there could be late fees, administration fees, loan servicing fees and document preparation fees. All of this can start to snowball very quickly and you might find yourself struggling to catch up if you fall behind.
Beware of balloon payments. Most private loans will be relatively short term with a balloon payment to repay capital at maturity. The lender may also have built in a balloon to keep your payments where you need them. Make sure you are aware of any balloon payments because they will come around way faster than you think.
Make sure the terms haven’t changed. Things change all the time in real estate. Don’t be surprised if your lender changes the terms, fees or interest rates on your loan as more information comes available through the title process. Check the paperwork you sign matched the quote you were given.
Related: A Guide to Lien Position and Priority
Understanding Loan Documents
Private lenders tend to be much more helpful than banks when it comes to getting your real estate deal across the line. A closed deal for you means profit and income for them. But again, the lack of regulation in the private money space means loan documentation can be different every time.
Private lenders can write in whatever terms they want to make your particular deal work for them. It is crucially important that you understand the precise terms of the loan BEFORE you sign on the dotted line. This includes the processes and consequences for missing payments or failing to perform on any other terms.
How to Protect Yourself
Understand your lenders foreclosure process. Private lenders will generally foreclosure much quicker than a bank. You could risk losing your property if you fall just 1 payment behind. Check your paperwork and make sure you fully understand what qualifies as a late payment, what the consequences are, and what opportunity you have to remedy the situation.
Be aware of all your responsibilities. Often you will find private loans have terms and covenants other than simply making payments. This might include maintaining a minimum debt service coverage ratio (DSCR), or reporting requirements. Defaulting ion these non-monetary covenants could trigger a foreclosure, so make sure you negotiate sufficient time to remedy and default.
Know your legal rights Make sure you understand exactly what your rights are on a State and Federal level. You do not want to be pushed into a foreclosure when you may have some protections under law.
Deals That Fall Through
This is quite common. While banks will usually always follow through and fund a loan they have underwritten, hard money deals can collapse at the last minute for a variety of reasons.
Mostly this will come down to the lender being unable to access the funds they were going to use for the loan. Hard money lenders might be relying on 3rd party private investors to fund the loan, or they might be relying on cashflow from other investment they have made that end up going South.
Direct private lenders may back out because they suddenly need to use their funds elsewhere. Sometimes, they might just change their mind.
There is not a great deal you can do to prevent deals falling apart because lenders back out. It is always a good idea to have a backup plan, and to develop relationships with multiple lenders so you can call someone else if your original lender backs out.
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